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1. Evaluation of antifertility potential of Brahmi in male mouse.

Singh A, Singh SK.

Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) on fertility of male laboratory mouse. STUDY DESIGN: Mice of the Parkes (P) strain were orally administered Brahmi (250 mg/kg body weight/day, for 28 and 56 days), and effect of the treatment on reproductive organs and fertility was investigated. Recovery and toxicological studies were also carried out. RESULTS: The treatment caused reduction in motility, viability, morphology, and number of spermatozoa in cauda epididymidis. Histologically, testes in mice treated with the plant extract showed alterations in the seminiferous tubules, and the alterations included intraepithelial vacuolation, loosening of germinal epithelium, exfoliation of germ cells and occurrence of giant cells. In severe cases, the tubules were lined by only Sertoli cells or Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Significant reductions were also noted in height of the germinal epithelium and diameter of the seminiferous tubules in Brahmi-treated mice compared to controls. Epididymis in treated males showed slight alterations in histological appearance. The treatment had no effect on levels of testosterone, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine in blood serum, hematological parameters and on liver and kidney histoarchitecture. In Brahmi-treated males, libido remained unaffected, but fertility was notably suppressed. The alterations caused in the above reproductive endpoints by the plant extract were reversible, and by 56 days of treatment withdrawal, the parameters recovered to control levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results in P mice thus suggest that Brahmi treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility, without producing apparent toxic effects.

Publication Types: PMID: 19041444 [PubMed - in process]

2. Stability studies of saponins in Bacopa monnieri dried ethanolic extracts.

Phrompittayarat W, Wittaya-areekul S, Jetiyanon K, Putalun W, Tanaka H, Ingkaninan K.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand.

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is currently used as a drug and food supplement for memory improvement. However, studies on the physical and chemical stability of the extract components, especially on the lead compound important for pre-formulation, have not yet been reported. In this study, the stabilities of the crude extract and the diluted crude extract were investigated at various temperatures using saponin glycosides, bacopaside I and bacoside A3 as markers for quantitative analysis. The stability testing of bacopaside I and bacoside A3 standard solution was performed at various temperatures and pH values. The quantity of both compounds under all conditions was analyzed using HPLC techniques. The moisture adsorption of the crude extract was determined at 5, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C at 75 % relative humidity using gravimetric methods. The results revealed that the crude extract quickly adsorbed moisture up to 54 % w/w at both 40 and 80 degrees C, while it only slowly adsorbed moisture at 5 degrees C. The amounts of intact bacopaside I and bacoside A3 in the crude extract decreased drastically at 80 degrees C, slowly at 40 and 60 degrees C, and remained unchanged at 5 degrees C during the period of investigation. Moreover, the amount of both compounds in the standard solution dropped sharply at a pH of 1.2 but slowly at pH 6.8 and 9.0, respectively. The pre-formulation data could be further used for improvement of the final product quality.

Publication Types: PMID: 18951336 [PubMed - in process]

3. Neuronutrient impact of Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy in brain aging.

Singh RH, Narsimhamurthy K, Singh G.

Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India, rh_singh2001@yahoo.com.

Ayurveda is the oldest system of Medicine in the world, its antiquity going back to the Vedas. It adapts a unique holistic approach to the entire science of life, health and cure. The areas of special consideration in Ayurveda are geriatrics, rejuvenation, nutrition, immunology, genetics and higher consciousness. The Ayurvedic texts describe a set of rejuvenative measures to impart biological sustenance to the bodily tissues. These remedies are called Rasayana which are claimed to act as micronutrients. Some of these Rasayanas are organ and tissue specific. Those specific to brain tissue are called Medhya Rasayana. Such Rasayanas retard brain aging and help in regeneration of neural tissues besides producing antistress, adaptogenic and memory enhancing effect. In addition to the long tradition of textual and experience-based evidence for their efficacy, certain recent studies conducted on these traditional remedies on scientific parameters have shown promising results which have been reviewed in this paper for providing lead for further studies. The popular Medhya Rasayanas are Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Linn), Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn) and Sankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois).

PMID: 18931935 [PubMed - in process]

4. Immunochromatographic assay for the detection of pseudojujubogenin glycosides.

Imsungnoen N, Phrompittayarat W, Ingkaninan K, Tanaka H, Putalun W.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

INTRODUCTION: Bacopa monnieri contains pseudojujubogenin glycosides as pharmacologically active compounds. In order to screen large numbers of plant samples for the presence of pseudojujubogenin glycosides, a rapid and simple assay system is required for application to small quantities of test materials. Immunoassays using monoclonal antibodies could be useful for the determination of small quantities of pseudojujubogenin glycosides in plant extracts. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to develop a simple method for the detection of pseudojujubogenin glycosides by the immunochromatographic strip test using anti-bacopaside I monoclonal antibody. METHODOLOGY: The qualitative assay was based on a competitive immunoassay in which the detector reagent consisted of a colloidal gold particle coated with the respective anti-bacopaside I MAb. The capture reagent was a bacopaside I-human serum albumin conjugate immobilised onto a test strip membrane. RESULTS: The sample containing pseudojujubogenin glycosides and the detection reagent were incubated with the immobilised capture reagent. The glycosides in the sample competed in binding to the limited amount of antibodies in the detection reagent with the immobilised bacopaside I-HSA conjugates and, hence, positive samples showed no colour in the capture spot zone. The detection limit for the strip test was 125 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: The assay system was found to be useful as a rapid and simple screening method for the detection of pseudojujubogenin glycosides in plants.

Publication Types: PMID: 18816474 [PubMed - in process]

5. Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieri on beta-amyloid-induced cell death in primary cortical culture.

Limpeanchob N, Jaipan S, Rattanakaruna S, Phrompittayarat W, Ingkaninan K.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand. nanteetipl@yahoo.com

AIM OF THE STUDY: Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) is extensively used in traditional Indian medicine as a nerve tonic and thought to improve memory. To examine the neuroprotective effects of Brahmi extract, we tested its protection against the beta-amyloid protein (25-35) and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cortical cultured neurons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neuroprotective effects were determined by measuring neuronal cell viability following beta-amyloid and glutamate treatment with and without Brahmi extract. Mechanisms of neuroprotection were evaluated by monitoring cellular oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity. RESULTS: Our result demonstrated that Brahmi extract protected neurons from beta-amyloid-induced cell death, but not glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. This neuroprotection was possibly due to its ability to suppress cellular acetylcholinesterase activity but not the inhibition of glutamate-mediated toxicity. In addition, culture medium containing Brahmi extract appeared to promote cell survival compared to neuronal cells growing in regular culture medium. Further study showed that Brahmi-treated neurons expressed lower level of reactive oxygen species suggesting that Brahmi restrained intracellular oxidative stress which in turn prolonged the lifespan of the culture neurons. Brahmi extract also exhibited both reducing and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. CONCLUSIONS: From this study, the mode of action of neuroprotective effects of Brahmi appeared to be the results of its antioxidant to suppress neuronal oxidative stress and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Therefore, treating patients with Brahmi extract may be an alternative direction for ameliorating neurodegenerative disorders associated with the overwhelming oxidative stress as well as Alzheimer's disease.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18755259 [PubMed - in process]

6.Iron-induced oxidative stress in a macrophyte: a chemometric approach.

Sinha S, Basant A, Malik A, Singh KP.

Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India. sinha_sarita52@yahoo.com

Iron-induced oxidative stress in plants of Bacopa monnieri L., a macrophyte with medicinal value, was investigated using the chemometric approach. Cluster analysis (CA) rendered two distinct clusters of roots and shoots. Discriminant analysis (DA) identified discriminating variables (NP-SH and APX) between the root and shoot tissues. Principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid, proline, and Fe uptake are dominant in root tissues, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), cysteine, and non-protein thiol (NP-SH) in shoot of the stress plant. Discriminant partial-least squares (DPLS) results further confirmed that SOD and ascorbic acid contents dominated in root tissues, while NP-SH, cysteine, POD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and MDA in shoot. MDA and NP-SH were identified as most pronounced variables in plant during the highest exposure time. The chemometric approach allowed for the interpretation of the induced biochemical changes in plant tissues exposed to iron.

PMID: 18706694 [PubMed - in process]

7. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B.

Helfgott Research Institute, National College of Natural Medicine, Portland, OR 97201, USA. ccalabrese@ncnm.edu

OBJECTIVES: Study aims were to evaluate effects of Bacopa monnieri whole plant standardized dry extract on cognitive function and affect and its safety and tolerability in healthy elderly study participants. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with a placebo run-in of 6 weeks and a treatment period of 12 weeks. Setting/location: Volunteers were recruited from the community to a clinic in Portland, Oregon by public notification. SUBJECTS: Fifty-four (54) participants, 65 or older (mean 73.5 years), without clinical signs of dementia, were recruited and randomized to Bacopa or placebo. Forty-eight (48) completed the study with 24 in each group. INTERVENTIONS: Standardized B. monnieri extract 300 mg/day or a similar placebo tablet orally for 12 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome variable was the delayed recall score from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Other cognitive measures were the Stroop Task assessing the ability to ignore irrelevant information, the Divided Attention Task (DAT), and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) letter-digit test of immediate working memory. Affective measures were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD)-10 depression scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Vital signs were also monitored. RESULTS: Controlling for baseline cognitive deficit using the Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration test, Bacopa participants had enhanced AVLT delayed word recall memory scores relative to placebo. Stroop results were similarly significant, with the Bacopa group improving and the placebo group unchanged. CESD-10 depression scores, combined state plus trait anxiety scores, and heart rate decreased over time for the Bacopa group but increased for the placebo group. No effects were found on the DAT, WAIS digit task, mood, or blood pressure. The dose was well tolerated with few adverse events (Bacopa n = 9, placebo n = 10), primarily stomach upset. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence that B. monnieri has potential for safely enhancing cognitive performance in the aging.

Publication Types: PMID: 18611150 [PubMed - in process]

8. In vitro safety evaluation and anticlastogenic effect of BacoMind on human lymphocytes.

Deb DD, Kapoor P, Dighe RP, Padmaja R, Anand MS, D'Souza P, Deepak M, Murali B, Agarwal A.

Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd, 19 K. M. Stone, Hosur Road, Plot No. 5B Veerasandra Indl. Area Bangalore 560100, India. dipanwita@naturalremedy.com

OBJECTIVE: BacoMind (BM) is a standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri, which belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae and is a creeping annual plant found throughout the Indian subcontinent. It has been used by Ayurvedic medicinal practitioners in India for almost 3000 years and is classified as a medharasayana, a substance which improves memory and intellect. With the widespread traditional use as well as scientific validation of Bacopa monnieri for nootropic activity, a bioactive-rich unique phytochemical composition-BacoMind was developed from B. monnieri for use as a cognition and memory enhancing agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro toxicity of this formulation of BacoMind on human lymphocytes and to rule out its possible contribution to mutagenicity. METHODS: In the present investigation the active ingredients present in BM were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Antioxidant and anticlastogenic properties of BM were studied in vitro with and without metabolic activation. Doses of BM were chosen on the basis of mitotic index (MI) and cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI). Clastogenicity assays were performed at 31.2 microg/mL, 62.5 microg/mL, and 125 microg/mL, while the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test) was performed at doses of 61.72, 185.18, 555.55, 1666.67, and 5000.00 microg/plate. RESULTS: HPLC and HPTLC analysis of BM revealed the presence of bacoside A3, bacopaside I, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C, bacosine, luteolin, apigenin, bacosine, and beta-sitosterol D glucoside. BM demonstrated significant antioxidant activity. The number of chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of micronuclei induced by BM were not statistically significant up to a dose of 62.5 microg/mL. A subsequent dose of 125 microg/mL prior to metabolic activation induced mild clastogenicity, but it was found to be biologically insignificant as this effect was not seen post metabolic activation. BM also demonstrated a dose-dependent protection against the clastogens used in this study using the above tests for clastogenicity. Maximum protection was observed in presence of metabolic activation. Moreover, BM demonstrated no mutagenic effect on the tested strains, as observed in the Ames test. CONCLUSION: BM protected human lymphocytes against various clastogens. BM also exhibited high antioxidant activity which might be responsible for the observed protective effects against the clastogens since the used clastogens are known to induce their clastogenic effects via production of oxidative radicals.

PMID: 18478974 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Decreased glutamate receptor binding and NMDA R1 gene expression in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract.

Khan R, Krishnakumar A, Paulose CS.

Molecular Neurobiology and Cell Biology Unit, Centre for Neuroscience, Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682 022, Kerala, India.

The potential for antiepileptic drugs to negatively impact cognitive abilities has generated renewed interest in herbal drugs and formulations in the treatment of epilepsy. Bacopa monnieri is one such widely used revitalizing herb that purportedly strengthens nervous function and also possesses memory-enhancing, antioxidative, antiepileptic, and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective role of B. monnieri extract in alteration of glutamate receptor binding and gene expression of NMDA R1 in hippocampus of temporal lobe epileptic rats. In association with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy, there was significant downregulation of NMDA R1 gene expression and glutamate receptor binding without any change in its affinity. B. monnieri treatment of epileptic rats significantly reversed the expression of NMDA R1 and glutamate receptor binding alterations to near-control levels. Also, in the epileptic rats, we measured a significant increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, which neared the control level after B. monnieri treatment. The therapeutic effect of B. monnieri was also observed in the Morris water maze experiment. These data together indicate the neuroprotective role of B. monnieri extract in glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity during seizures and cognitive damage occurring in association with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy.

Publication Types:  PMID: 18086456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Effect of Fagonia Arabica (Dhamasa) on in vitro thrombolysis.

Prasad S, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF.

Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Central India Institute of Medical Sciences, 88/2, Bajaj Nagar, Nagpur-440010, Maharashtra, India. sweta_ciims@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed in blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. Herbs and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before; however, herbs that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. This study's aim was to investigate whether herbal preparations (aqueous extract) possess thrombolytic activity or not. METHODS: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six aqueous herbal extracts viz., Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and Bacopa monnieri Linn along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. RESULTS: Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Fagonia Arabica and Bacopa monnieri Linn showed 19.3%, 14.5%, 20.3%, 17.8%, 75.6% and 41.8% clot lysis respectively . Among the herbs studied Fagonia arabica showed significant % of clot lysis (75.6%) with reference to Streptokinase (86.2%). CONCLUSION: Through our study it was found that Dhamasa possesses thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of Dhamasa for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. Once found Dhamasa could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent for the improvement of patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.

Publication Types: PMID: 17986325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract in epilepsy and effect of glucose supplementation during hypoxia: glutamate receptor gene expression.

Paulose CS, Chathu F, Khan SR, Krishnakumar A.

Molecular Neurobiology and Cell Biology Unit, Centre for Neuroscience, Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala, 682022, India. cspaulose@cusat.ac.in

The experiments were designed to study the glutamate gene expression during epilepsy in adult and hypoxic insult to brain during the neonatal period and the therapeutic role of neuroprotective supplements. We investigated the role of metabotropic glutamate-8 receptor (mGluR8) gene expression in cerebellum during epilepsy and neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract in epilepsy. We also studied the effect of NMDA receptor 1 (NMDAR1) gene expression during neonatal hypoxia and therapeutic role of glucose, oxygen and epinephrine supplementation. During epilepsy a significant down-regulation (P < 0.01) of mGluR8 gene expression was observed which was up-regulated (P < 0.05) near control level after B. monnieri treatment which is supported by Morris water maze experiment. In hypoxic neonates we observed up-regulation (P < 0.001) of the NMDAR1 gene expression whereas glucose and glucose + oxygen was able to significantly reverse (P < 0.001) the gene expression to near control level when compared to hypoxia and epinephrine treatment which was supported by open field test. Our results showed that B. monnieri treatment to epileptic rats significantly brought the reversal of the down-regulated mgluR8 gene expression toward control level. In neonatal rats, hypoxia induced expressional and functional changes in the NMDAR1 receptors of neuronal cells which is corrected by supplementation of glucose alone or glucose followed by oxygen during the resuscitation to prevent the glutamate related neuronal damage. Thus, the results suggest the clinical significance of corrective measures for epileptic and hypoxic management.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17940877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Multistage and tandem mass spectrometry of glycosylated triterpenoid saponins isolated from Bacopa monnieri: comparison of the information content provided by different techniques.

Zehl M, Pittenauer E, Jirovetz L, Bandhari P, Singh B, Kaul VK, Rizzi A, Allmaier G.

Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.

Whereas all state-of-the-art techniques in mass spectrometry (MS) have been extensively applied to oligosaccharides derived from glycoproteins, less effort has been devoted to the analysis of smaller glycoconjugates. In the present study, the application of a variety of MS techniques for the analysis of two dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from B. monnieri is reported. The structural information provided by ESI-ion trap (IT)-, AP-MALDI-IT-, and MALDI-IT/reflectron time-of-flight (RTOF)-MS, all utilizing low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), and MALDI-TOF/RTOF-MS, facilitating postsource decay and high-energy CID analysis, was compared. The applied desorption/ionization technique does not influence the fragmentation of identical precursor ions in low-energy CID. All three fragmentation techniques clearly yield the sequence and branching of the glycan moiety as well as the molecular mass of the intact aglycon. Cross-ring cleavage of the branching sugar, which gives some information about the sugar linkages, was mainly observed in low-energy CID. High-energy CID, on the other hand, yielded some additional diagnostic fragment ions from the aglycon moiety. Internal cleavage ions are formed by alternative mechanisms in high-energy CID and are assumed to be diagnostic for some linkages. However, none of the applied MS techniques facilitates the identification of those saponins that differ only by their aglycon moiety (i.e., jujubogenin or pseudojujubogenin).

Publication Types: PMID: 17918912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. A rapid RP-HPTLC densitometry method for simultaneous determination of major flavonoids in important medicinal plants.

Bhandari P, Kumar N, Gupta AP, Singh B, Kaul VK.

Natural Plant Products Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, HP, India.

A simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and robust high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of flavonoids in herbal extracts Bauhinia variegata, Bacopa monnieri, Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Lonicera japonica, Rosa bourboniana, Rosa brunonii, and Rosa damascena. The HPTLC of flavonoids was performed on RP-18 F(254) TLC plates with dual run, water (5% formic acid)/methanol (70:30) and water (5% formic acid)/methanol (50:50) as mobile phases. Densitometric determination of flavonoids was performed at lambda = 280 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r(2 )= 0.998 +/- 0.0003 in the concentration range of 150-800 ng/spot for apigenin and rutin and 200-1000 ng/spot for quercetin, luteolin, and quercitrin with respect to peak area. The average recovery for apigenin, quercetin, rutin, luteolin, and quercitrin was 97-99.8% indicating the excellent reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for determination of flavonoids.

Publication Types: PMID: 17654615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. Determination of pseudojujubogenin glycosides from Brahmi based on immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody against bacopaside I.

Phrompittayarat W, Putalun W, Tanaka H, Jetiyanon K, Wittaya-Areekul S, Ingkaninan K.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand.

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for centuries as a memory enhancer. Dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins classified as pseudojujubogenin and jujubogenin glycosides are reported as the active components in this plant. In this study, the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against bacopaside I, a major pseudojujubogenin glycoside found in Brahmi, was produced and characterised. Bacopaside I was conjugated with bovine albumin serum to prepare an immunogen. Hybridomas secreting a monoclonal antibody against bacopaside I was produced by fusing splenocytes from an immunised mouse and SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells. The results showed that the antibodies were raised specifically against pseudojujubonin glycosides. An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using anti-bacopaside I MAb was performed in the range of 1.95-62.5 ng/mL of bacopaside I, with a limit of detection of 0.5 ng/mL. The method was validated and the practical use of the ELISA for analysing saponin glycosides from Brahmi was demonstrated. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17624902 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Safety evaluation of a standardized phytochemical composition extracted from Bacopa monnieri in Sprague--Dawley rats.

Joshua Allan J, Damodaran A, Deshmukh NS, Goudar KS, Amit A.

Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., 5B, Veerasandra Industrial Area, Bangalore 560 100, India. joshua@naturalremedy.com

BacoMind is an enriched phytochemical composition derived from Bacopa monnieri, a common medicinal plant having multiple uses in the traditional system of medicine and particularly used as a memory enhancing agent for centuries. The plant and its extracts have been evaluated for anti-inflammatory, cardio tonic, sedative and neuro-muscular blocking activities. In view of the extensive use of this plant, BacoMind , standardized to bioactive compounds was evaluated in a series of toxicity studies, to confirm the safety of its usage. BacoMind , on single oral administration had a median lethal dose of 2,400 mg/kg in Sprague-Dawley rats. In a 14 day repeated dose oral toxicity study in rats, except for mild lowering in body weight gain in male rats, it was found to be tolerated well up to the dose of 500 mg/kg. A subchronic oral toxicity study for 90 days in rats at the dose levels of 85, 210 and 500 mg/kg did not reveal any evidence of toxicity with respect to clinical signs, neurological examination, food consumption, body weight gain, haematological and blood biochemistry parameters. The absolute and relative organ weight of vital organs did not differ significantly from that of the control. Necropsy and histopathological examination, did not reveal any remarkable and treatment related changes. A no-observed adverse effect level of 500 mg/kg body weight was established in rats.

PMID: 17560704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16. Preferential accumulation of cadmium and chromium: toxicity in Bacopa monnieri L. under mixed metal treatments.

Shukla OP, Dubey S, Rai UN.

Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17492241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17. Cucurbitacins from Bacopa monnieri.

Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Kaul VK.

Natural Plant Products Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176 061, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Four cucurbitacins, bacobitacin A-D (1-4) as well as, a known cytotoxic, cucurbitacin E (5) together with three known phenylethanoid glycosides, monnieraside I, III and plantioside B were isolated form the aerial part of Bacopa monnieri. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic investigations (1D, 2D NMR and ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). This is the first report on the characterization of cucurbitacins in B. monnieri.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17442350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18. An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay using polyclonal antibodies against bacopaside I.

Phrompittayarat W, Putalun W, Tanaka H, Wittaya-Areekul S, Jetiyanon K, Ingkaninan K.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand.

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is a medicinal plant used as a memory enhancer in Ayurvedic medicines. Its active components are triterpenoid glycosides namely pseudojujubogenin and jujubogenin glycosides. In order to analyze these saponin glycosides, an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal antibodies against bacopaside I, one of the pseudojujubogenin glycosides found in the plant. Bacopaside I was conjugated with a bovine albumin serum (BSA) to prepare an immunogen. The bacopaside I-BSA conjugate was immunized to a rabbit for producing polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). The results showed that the antibodies were raised specifically against pseudojujubogenin glycosides. An ELISA using anti-bacopaside I PAbs was performed in the range of 1.95-62.5 ng mL(-1) of bacopaside I and the limit of detection was 0.1 ng mL(-1). The method was validated and the applicability of the ELISA for analyzing saponin glycosides from Brahmi was demonstrated.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17386577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19. Triterpene saponins from Bacopa monnieri and their antidepressant effects in two mice models.

Zhou Y, Shen YH, Zhang C, Su J, Liu RH, Zhang WD.

Department of Phytochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.

Three new triterpene glycosides, bacopasides VI-VIII (1-3), together with three known analogues, bacopaside I (4), bacopaside II (5), and bacopasaponsin C (6), were isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monnieri. Compounds 4, 5, and 6 showed antidepressant activity when tested on forced swimming and tail suspension in mice, respectively.

Publication Types:  PMID: 17343408 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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